Circuits with energy storage elements (capacitors and inductors) change over time. The natural response is what the circuit does when it has interally stored energy and there are no outside signals connected. When you connect an external signal to a circuit, the behavior is called the forced response.


Capacitor i-v equations

A capacitor integrates current

Capacitor i-v equation in action

Inductor i-v equations

Inductor kickback

Inductor kickback (1 of 2)

Inductor kickback (2 of 2)

RC natural response

RC natural response - intuition

RC natural response - derivation

RC natural response - example

RC step response

RC step response - intuition

RC step response - setup (1 of 3)

RC step response - solve (2 of 3)

RC step response - example (3 of 3)

Sketching RC exponentials

Sketching RC exponentials - examples

LC natural response - intuition (1 of 2)

LC natural response - intuition (2 of 2)

LC natural response - derivation (1 of 4)

LC natural response - derivation (2 of 4)

LC natural response - derivation (3 of 4)

LC natural response - derivation (4 of 4)

LC natural response - example

RLC natural response