# DeMorgan's theorem

DeMorgan’s theorem unleashes the full power of NAND and NOR gates. It is by far the most important theorem in digital design. DeMorgan lets you clearly reveal your *design intent*. Logic becomes easier to understand and get right.

Using DeMorgan’s theorem in your designs is an important aspect of *discipline* we talked about in the introduction to digital electronics.

Written by Willy McAllister.

### Contents

- NAND
- NOR
- DeMorgan’s theorem
- Concept check
- How to remember DeMorgan’s theorem
- Missing bars
- DeMorgan equivalent gate symbols

### Where we’re headed

DeMorgan’s theorem,

A · B = A + B $\quad$ (NAND form)

A + B = A · B $\quad$ (NOR form)

## NAND

DeMorgan’s theorem emerges from the truth tables for NAND and NOR. Let’s look at NAND,

Back when we introduced NAND and NOR and the basic logic gates we defined the operations with a single statement that said how to make the output TRUE. But, there is another way to describe a truth table. You can describe when the output is FALSE.

**Write two statements, one for when the output of NAND is FALSE, and another when the output is TRUE.**

## show answer

- The output is FALSE if both A AND B are TRUE.
- The output is TRUE if either A OR B are FALSE.

NAND is C = A·B, and that is the same as saying C = A + B

Both are valid ways to define NAND. One of them is not “more true” than the other.

From this we get DeMorgan’s theorem for NAND, A·B = A + B

## NOR

Now we look at the NOR truth table,

There are two ways to describe the NOR truth table—when the output is FALSE or when the output is TRUE. **How would you do it? Give it a try.**

## show answer

- The output is FALSE if either A OR B are TRUE.
- The output is TRUE if both A AND B are FALSE.

NOR is C = A + B, which is the same as saying C = A · B

Both are valid ways to define NOR.

From this we get DeMorgan’s theorem for NOR, A + B = A · B

## DeMorgan’s theorem

The two forms of DeMorgan’s theorem are,

A · B = A + B $\quad$ (NAND form)

A + B = A · B $\quad$ (NOR form)

## Concept check

- Fill out this truth table a column at a time to reinforce DeMorgan’s theorem.

## show answer

- Put DeMorgan’s theorem to work,

**Write this statement two ways using the NAND form of DeMorgan’s theorm,**

*I love pie that is not made with Apples and Bananas.*

## show answer

Define some variables,

A = pie has apples

B = pie has bananas

L = I love this pie

My love of pie can be stated two ways,

L = A·B$\qquad$ I love this pie if it does NOT have apples AND bananas.

L = A + B$\quad$ I love this pie if it has NO apples OR it has NO bananas.

**Do I love a pie made of apples and raisins?**

## show answer

A = pie has apples = TRUE

B = pie has bananas = FALSE

L = A·B = TRUE·FALSE = TRUE

L = A + B = TRUE + FALSE = TRUE

Either way, I love this pie!

- Someone gives you a pie made of apples and bananas.
**Do you like this pie?**

Run both equations again. You shouldn’t like this pie.

- Change one word in the original problem,

*I love pie that is not made with apples*__OR__bananas.

Define some logic variables—then use the NOR form of DeMorgan’s theorem.

**Do you love a pie made from peaches and bananas?**

## How to remember DeMorgan’s theorem

These two equations are hard to keep straight. Here’s a trick to help you remember,

- If you have two individual bar expressions — either A · B or A + B
- Merge the bars into an overall bar and flip to the opposite operator,
- A · B turns into A + B
- A + B turns into A · B

or

- If you have two expressions under a common bar — either A · B or A + B
- Break the bar into two individual bars and flip to the opposite operator,
- A · B turns into A + B
- A + B turns into A · B

## Missing bars

What if there isn’t a bar on every term? What if you have something like A · B and you want to use deMorgan’s theorem? DeMorgan’s theorem is written with bars on every term, so if one term has no bar we do a little trick: we add two bars above B, and then use the same rule. Two bars is a logic identity, B = B. Inverting B twice gives you back B.

This lets us write A · B as A · B and every term has at least one bar over it.

Then apply the rule. Merge the bar on A with the top bar on B. This leaves behind a B (with one bar). Flip the AND operation to an OR like usual, and you end up with,

A · B = A + B

## DeMorgan equivalent gate symbols

DeMorgan’s theorem suggests additional gate symbols.

Look at the NAND form of DeMorgan’s theorem: If A·B = A + B then,

The symbol on the left is the usual NAND symbol. On the right we just invented an equivalent symbol for NAND. These two symbols are *both* NAND gates. DeMorgan’s theorem says the equivalent symbols do *exactly* the same thing. The new symbol on the right emphasizes the OR part of the DeMorgan equation.

How about for the NOR form? If A + B = A · B then,

The symbol on the left is the usual NOR symbol. On the right we just invented an equivalent symbol for NOR. These two symbols are *both* NOR gates. DeMorgan’s theorem says the equivalent symbols do *exactly* the same thing. The one on the right emphasizes the AND part of the DeMorgan equation.

**Key Point:** Inside the NAND and NOR symbols there is some sort of circuit creating the logic function (we study these later). When you use the alternate DeMorgan symbol, that internal circuit *does not change. It is exactly the same circuit for both symbols.*

It may seem weird to call the first two symbols both “NAND” when one of them obviously includes an OR symbol. The same for the NOR symbol made with an AND shape. This is just something to get used to and you build up your DeMorgan muscle. The awkward alternative would be to make up new names for the DeMorgan symbols, like ORN and ANDN. Yuck. Let these symbols sink in to the point where you instantly name each DeMorgan symbol the right thing.

These new DeMorgan symbols are equivalent to the memory trick we talked about above. The single output bubble becomes two bubbles on the input side, and the gate symbol is flipped, AND becomes OR, or OR becomes AND.

## Summary

DeMorgan’s theorem,

A · B = A + B $\quad$ (NAND form)

A + B = A · B $\quad$ (NOR form)

In the next article we turn DeMorgan’s theorem into a logic superpower and do some practice problems.