Capacitors and inductors store energy. The natural response of a circuit is what it does “naturally” as its internal energy moves around. As the energy sloshes around we track what happens to voltage and current.

If you connect an external energy source to a circuit its behavior changes. The circuit displays a natural response and a forced response. The $\text{RC}$ step response is an example of natural plus forced response.

### Capacitor

Capacitor i-v equations

A capacitor integrates current

Capacitor i-v equation in action

### Inductor

Inductor i-v equations

Inductor kickback

Inductor kickback (1)

Inductor kickback (2)

### RC

RC natural response —– intuition

RC natural response —– derivation

RC natural response —– intuition

RC natural response —– derivation

RC natural response —– example

### RC step

RC step response — intuition

RC step response — derivation

Forced response — can be defined two ways

Differential equation theorem — essential part of the step response derivation

RC step response —– intuition

RC step response —– setup (1)

RC step response —– solve (2)

RC step response —– example (3)

### Sketching exponentials

Sketching RC exponentials

Sketching RC exponentials — examples

### RL

RL natural response — intuition

RL natural response — derivation

### LC

LC natural response —– intuition

LC natural response —– derivation

LC natural response —– intuition (1)

LC natural response —– intuition (2)

LC natural response —– derivation (1)

LC natural response —– derivation (2)

LC natural response —– derivation (3)

LC natural response —– derivation (4)

LC natural response —– example

### RLC

RLC natural response —– intuition

RLC natural response —– derivation

RLC natural response —– variations